Healthy Development and Aging

Graphic describing the aim of the Healthy Development & Aging research platform

The aim of this research platform is to strengthen and increase access to physical therapy, healthcare, and community systems that optimize the health and well-being strategies for people with acute and chronic conditions across the lifespan. This aim is addressed by:

  • developing tools and approaches to understand populations with complex health and social care needs
  • developing beneficial and cost-effective physical therapy and rehabilitation interventions and community wellness programs that meet the needs of individuals and families
  • understanding how social factors, financing systems, organizational structures and processes, health technologies, and personal behaviours affect implementation of and access to interventions and programs
  • designing effective strategies to increase the uptake of physical therapy and rehabilitation interventions and community wellness programs
  • creating innovative education tools and programs to prepare physical therapists for current and emerging roles that advance the health, function, and well-being of individuals, families, and communities

Examples include self-care tools, community-based exercise and dance programs.

Research undertaken within this platform has yielded new methods of physical therapy education, assessment, and treatment. Faculty have created innovative community-based exercise, dance, and self-management programs incorporating new roles for health professionals and evidence-based strategies to promote health, function, and well-being across the lifespan.

Programs of Research and Faculty

2022 Peer-Reviewed Publications: Healthy Development & Aging

  • Aravind G, Bashir K, Cameron JI, Howe J, Jaglal SB, Bayley MT, Teasell R, Moineddin R, Zee J, Wodchis W, Tee A, Hunter S, Salbach NM. Increasing access to task-oriented community-based exercise programs through healthcare-community partnerships to improve function post-stroke: Feasibility of a 2-group randomized controlled trial protocol. Pilot and Feasibility Studies. 2022;8:88. Available from:
  • Bhatia D, Salbach NM, Akinrolie O, Alsbury-Nealy K, Barbosa dos Santos R, Eftekhar P, Loewen H, Nekolaichuk E, Scheller C, Schorr R, Scodras S, Barclay R. Outdoor community ambulation interventions to improve physical and mental health in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity. 2022. Available from:
  • Brown DA, O’Brien KK. Conceptualising Long COVID as an Episodic Health Condition. BMJ Global Health. 2021;6:e007004. doi:10.1136/bmjgh-2021-007004.
  • Cheng DK, Dagenais M, Alsbury-Nealy K, Legasto JM, Scodras S, Aravind G, Takhar P, Salbach NM. Distance-limited walk tests poststroke: a systematic review of measurement properties. NeuroRehabilitation. 2021;48(4):413-439. doi: 10.3233/NRE-210026. PMID: 33967070.
  • Cheung L, McKay B, Chan K, Heffernan MG, Pakosh M, Musselman KE. Exploring sport participation in individuals with spinal cord injury: a qualitative thematic synthesis. J Spinal Cord Med. 2022 Jan 4:1-19. doi: 10.1080/10790268.2021.2009676. Epub ahead of print.
  • Craven BC, Musselman K, Humphrey S, Walden K, Parsons J, Eapen J, Noonan VK, Cheng SL, Yousefi Chernesky J, et al. Collaborative networks to achieve innovations in care. Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine. 2021; 44(sup1):S5-S16.
  • Dermott JA, Wright FW, Salbach NM, Narayanan UG. Development of the gait outcomes assessment list for lower limb differences (GOAL-LD) questionnaire: a child and parent reported outcome measure. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes. 19: 139, 2021. Available from:
  • Egilson S, Ólafsdóttir L, Ingimarsdóttir A, Haraldsdóttir F; Jóhannsdóttir Á; Gibson BE; Hardonk SC. Life quality and participation of disabled children and young people: Design and methods of a transformative study, 2021 May 11: 20 (electronic journal) International Journal of Qualitative Methods.
  • Gangar S, Sivakumaran S, Anderson AN, Shaw KR, Estrela LA, Kwok HCY, Davies RC, Tong A, Salbach NM. Optimizing falls risk prediction for inpatient stroke rehabilitation: A secondary data analysis. Physiotherapy Theory and Practice. 2022, ahead of print, 1-12. Available from:
  • Haire CM, Tremblay L, Vuong V, Patterson KK, Chen JL, Burdette JH, Schaffert N, Thaut MH. Therapeutic Instrumental Music Training and Motor Imagery in Post-Stroke Upper-Extremity Rehabilitation: A Randomized-Controlled Pilot Study. Archives of rehabilitation research and clinical translation. 2021 Dec 1;3(4):100162.
  • Harding R, Jones CI, Bremner S, Bristowe K, West B, Seigert RJ, O’Brien KK, Whetham J, and the EMERGE Consortium. Positive Outcomes: validity, reliability and responsiveness of a novel person-centred outcome measure for people with HIV. HIV Medicine. Published Online: Jan 11, 2022
  • Homayouni TS, Ruth A, Abbott-Tate Z, Burger H, Rahim S, Murray C, Wannamaker R, Chan Carusone S, O’Brien KK. Experiences engaging in a group-based physiotherapist-led exercise program for adults living with HIV and complex multimorbidity: a qualitative study. BMJ Open 2021;11:e045158. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-045158.
  • Inness EL, Jagroop D, Andreoli A, Bayley M, Biasin L, Danells C, Hall J, Mansfield A, McDonald A, Nishri D, Salbach NM, Taylor D, Tang A. Factors that influence the clinical implementation of aerobic exercise in stroke rehabilitation: A theoretically-informed qualitative study. Physical Therapy. 2022. Available from: Co-Author.
  • Jagroop D, Houvardas S, Danells CJ, Kochanowski J, French E, Salbach NM, Musselman K, Innes EL, Mansfield A. Rehabilitation clinicians’ perspectives of reactive balance training. Disability & Rehabilitation. 2021. Available from: doi:
  • Jervis Rademeyer H, Gastle N, Walden K, Lemay JF, Ho C, Marquez-Chin C, Musselman KE. Activity-based therapy for individuals with spinal cord injury/disease: perspectives of acute care therapists. Spinal Cord Series and Cases. 2022; 8: 39. 
  • Jeyathevan G, Jaglal SB, Hitzig SL, Linassi G, Mills S, Noonan VK, Anzai K,Clarke T, Wolfe D, Bayley M, Aslam L, Farahani F, Alavinia SM, Omidvar M, Craven BC. Conception and development of Self-Management indicators to advance the quality of spinal cord injury rehabilitation: SCI-High Project. J Spinal Cord Med. 2021;44(sup1):S94-S117. doi: 10.1080/10790268.2021.1961054.
  • King L, Waugh E, Jones C, Bohm E, Dunbar M, Woodhouse L, Noseworthy T, Marshall D, Hawker G. Comorbidities do not limit improvement in pain and physical function after total knee arthroplasty in patients with knee osteoarthritis: the BEST-Knee prospective cohort study. BMJ Open 2021;11:304706. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2020-047061.
  • King LK, Hawker GA, Jones CA, Stanaitis I, Woodhouse L, Waugh EJ. Minimal Clinically Important Difference for Improvement in Six-Minute Walk Test in Persons with Knee Osteoarthritis After Total Knee Arthroplasty. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2022; 23:307.
  • Kokorelias K, Ripat, Jones CA, Mayo NE, Salbach NM, Barclay R. Moving through COVID-19: perspectives of older adults in the Getting Older Adults Outdoors study. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity. 2021, ahead of print, 1-11. Available from:
  • Kokorelias KM, Cronin SM, Munce SEP, Eftekhar P, McGilton KS, Vellani S, Colella TJF, Kontos P,  Grigorovich A, Furlan A, Salbach NM, Jaglal SB, Chan B, Cameron JI. Conceptualization of frailty in rehabilitation intervention trials with adults: a scoping review. Disabil Rehabil. 2021 Dec 10:1-372021.
  • Lau B, Sharma I, Manku S, Kobylianski J, Wong LY, Ibáñez-Carrasco F, Chan Carusone S, O'Brien KK. Considerations for developing and implementing an online community-based exercise intervention with adults living with HIV: a qualitative study. BMJ Open 2022;12:e059294.  April 15, 2022.
  • Lau SKC, Luong D, Sweet SN, Bayley M, Levy BB, Kastner M, Nelson MLA, Salbach NM, Jaglal SB, Shepherd J, Wilcock R, Thoms C, Munce SEP. Using an integrated knowledge translation approach to inform a pilot feasibility randomized controlled trial on peer support for individuals with traumatic brain injury: a qualitative descriptive study. PLOS One 16(8): e0256650, 2021.
  • Levy BB, Luong D, Bayley MT, Sweet SN, Voth J, Kastner M, Nelson MLA, Jaglal SB, Salbach NM, Wilcock R, Thoms C, Shepherd J, Munce SEP. A pilot feasibility randomized controlled trial on the Ontario Brain Injury Association Peer Support Program. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 2021; 10(13); 2913. Available from:
  • MacDermid JC, McClure JA, Richard L, Faber KJ, Jaglal S. Fracture profiles of a 4-year cohort of 266,324 first incident upper extremity fractures from population health data in Ontario. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2021 Nov 29;22(1):996. doi: 10.1186/s12891-021-04849-7.
  • MacDonald SL, Hall RE, Bell CM, Cronin S, Jaglal SB. Association of material deprivation with discharge location and length of stay after inpatient stroke rehabilitation in Ontario: a retrospective, population-based cohort study. CMAJ Open. 2022 Jan 25;10(1):E50-E55. doi: 10.9778/cmajo.20200300. PMID: 35078823.
  • MacDonald SL, Hall RE, Bell CM, Cronin S, Jaglal SB. Sex differences in the outcomes of adults admitted to inpatient rehabilitation after stroke. PM R. 2021 Jun 28. doi: 10.1002/pmrj.12660. Epub 2021 Aug 17.
  • Musselman KE, Walden K, Noonan VK, Jervis-Rademeyer H, Thorogood N, Bouyer L, Chan B, Donkers S, Ho C, Jeji T, Kaiser A, Klassen TD, Zariffa J, Grant C, Masani K, Zbogar D, Athanasopoulous P, and the Canadian ABT Summit Attendees. Development of priorities for a Canadian strategy to advance activity-based therapies after spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2021; 59: 874-884.
  • Noguchi KS, O’Brien KK, Aubry RL, Chan Carusone S, Avery L, Solomon P, Ilic I, Pandovski Z, Zobeiry M, Tang A. Construct validity and responsiveness of the Rapid Assessment of Physical Activity in adults living with HIV. Arch Rehabil Res Clin Transl.  3(4). 100164. December 10, 2021.
  • O’Brien KK, Bayoumi AM, Chan Carusone S, Davis AM, Aubry R, Avery L, Solomon P, Erlandson KM, Bergin C, Harding R, Brown DA, Vera JH, Hanna SE.  Disability and self-care living strategies among adults living with HIV during the COVID-19 pandemic. AIDS Res Ther 18, 87 (2021). Published Online: Jan 11, 2022
  • O'Brien KK, Brown DA, Bergin C, Erlandson KM, Vera JH, Avery L, Chan Carusone S, Cheung A, Goulding S, Harding R, McCorkell L, O'Hara M, Robinson L, Thomson C, Wei H, St. Clair-Sullivan N, Torres B, Bannan C, Roche N, Stokes R, Gayle P, Solomon P. Long COVID and episodic disability: advancing the conceptualisation, measurement and knowledge of episodic disability among people living with Long COVID - protocol for a mixed-methods study. BMJ Open. March 7, 2022;12:e060826. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2022-060826   Available at:
  • O'Brien KK, Davis AM, Chan Carusone S, Avery L, Tang A, Solomon P, Aubry R, Zobeiry M, Ilic I, Pandovski Z, Bayoumi AM.  Examining the impact of a community-based exercise intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiovascular health, strength, flexibility and physical activity among adults living with HIV: a three-phased intervention study. PLoS One. September 24, 2021.   
  • Salbach NM, McDonald A, MacKay-Lyons M, Bulmer B, Howe J, Bayley MT, McEwen S, Nelson M, Solomon P. Experiences of physical therapists and professional leaders with implementing a toolkit to advance walking assessment post-stroke: A realist evaluation. Physical Therapy, 2021. DOI: 10.1093/ptj/pzab232.
  • Sibley KM, Gardner P, Bentley DC, Khan M, McGlynn M, Shing P, Shaffer J, O’Hoski S, Salbach NM. Exploring factors influencing physiotherapists’ perceptions of measuring reactive balance following a theory-based multi-component intervention: a qualitative descriptive study. Disability and Rehabilitation. 2021. Available from:
  • Singh H, Chan K, Cheung L, Hitzig S, Musselman KE. The impact of falls and fear of falling on participation, autonomy, and life satisfaction among individuals with spinal cord injury: a brief report. Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine. 2021; 44(sup1): S234-S239.   
  • Singh H, Cheung L, Chan K, Flett HM, Hitzig S, Kaiser A, Musselman KE. Comparing the causes, circumstances and consequences of falls across mobility statuses among individuals with spinal cord injury: a secondary analysis. Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine. 2021; 44(sup1): S193-S202.
  • Singh H, Collins K, Flett HM, Jaglal SB, Musselman KE. Therapists' perspectives on fall prevention in spinal cord injury rehabilitation: a qualitative study. Disabil Rehabil. 2021 Mar 31:1-10. doi: 10.1080/09638288.2021.1904013.
  • Solomon P, Chan Carusone S, Davis A, Aubry R, O’Brien KK.  A Qualitative Study of Fitness Coaches’ Experiences in Community Based Exercise with People Living with HIV. Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care (JIAPAC).  Volume 20. October 20, 2021.
  • Vader K, Chan Carusone S, Aubry R, Ahluwalia P, Murray C, Baxter L, Robinson G, Ibanez-Carrasco F, Stewart A, Solomon P, O’Brien KK. Examining the Utility of the HIV Disability Questionnaire (HDQ) in Clinical Practice: Perspectives of People Living with HIV and Healthcare Providers. Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care (JIAPAC). Published Online: February 17, 2022.  
  • Verweel L, Goren R, Bayoumi AM, O’Brien KK, MacPhail E, Rader T, Tiessen JH, Rosenberg-Yunger Z.  Development of the Patient and Public Involvement Questionnaire for Canadian Formulary Committees. Canadian Health Policy. July 2021. ISSN 2562-9492. Available at: